Patented May 25, 1943
United States Patent Office
Russell P. Harshberger, Chicago, Ill.
Application August 26, 1939. Serial No. 291,998.
21 Claims. (Cl. 30—44)
The invention relates to razors and more particularly to razor structures embodying power driven means for imparting a rapid reciprocatory movement to the cutting element.
An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved razor structure of this character having a novel relationship of the reciprocating mechanism to the supporting casing for minimizing vibration of the supporting casing when the device is in operation.
Another object is to provide a razor having novel means for effecting reciprocation of the cutting element including a member for producing the reciprocatory movement and means for isolating the member and the cutting element with respect to the supporting casing to substantially eliminate casing vibration.
In conjunction with the foregoing, another object is to provide novel means for producing reciprocatory movement of the cutting element including a driven member having a gyratory movement at a predetermined rate of speed and associated means for translating the gyratory movement to substantially straight line reciprocation.
Other objects and advantages, as will become apparent in the following description and from the accompanying drawings, reside in the arrangement and relationship of parts by which the reciprocatory movement of the cutting element is produced smoothly and efficiently.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a view partially in side elevation but primarily in axial section of a razor embodying the features of the invention.
Fig. 2 is an axial sectional view through the head portion of the razor taken along the line 2—2 of Fig. 1, a part of the blade support being shown in elevation.
Fig. 3 is an end view of the razor head, parts being broken away to illustrate the arrangement of the head elements.
Figs. 4 and 5 are transverse sectional views taken respectively along the lines 4—4 and 5—5 of Fig. 2.
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 are views generally corresponding with Figs. 1, 2 and 3 respectively and illustrate a modified form of structure.
Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 9—9 of Fig. 6.
While the invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative constructions, I have shown in the drawings and will herein describe in detail the preferred embodiment, but it is to be understood that I do not thereby intend to limit the invention to the specific form disclosed, but intend to cover all modifications and alternative constructions falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
In the razor structure which has been selected for the purpose of illustrating the invention, driven movement of a rotating drive shaft is derived from a spring motor as the prime mover or source of power, and the structure is substantially that illustrated and described in my Patent No. 2,056,186, issued October 6, 1936. The present invention, however, may be used in connection with other sources of power than that herein shown. Since reference to my issued patent aforesaid can be had for a complete understanding of the driving mechanism, only a brief description thereof will be given here.
An elongated tubular casing 15 forms the handle of the razor and at one end has a head 16 detachably secured thereto as by a screw threaded engagement 17. The casing 15 includes a relatively rotatable end section 18 in which a spring motor 19 is housed. The external end of the spring motor is connected to the section 18 through a pawl and ratchet mechanism, indicated generally at 20, and its internal end is fixed to a shaft 21 journaled axially in the casing. The shaft carries the end gear 22 of a train of gears, designated 23, for driving at a greatly increased rate of speed a shaft 24 at the head end of the casing. The shaft 24 is supported by a bearing plate 25 which traverses the head end of the casing and is arranged to close a chamber 26 formed in the associated end of the head 16. Preferably the bearing plate is resiliently isolated from or "floated" with respect to the casing by such means as an interposed rubber bushing gasket 25a.
Referring to the structure shown in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, the head 16 beyond the chamber 26 has an end wall 27 to which a blade supporting bed 28 is rigidly secured. A blade 29 of the double edge type is operatively held on the bed by a cap 30 adapted to be detachably secured to the bed in any suitable manner as by a spring clip 31 seated in a longitudinal groove in the cap and having inwardly biased angular ends 32 (Fig. 2) engageable with appropriate notches 33 in the bed. The blade in this structure is mounted for movement relative to the bed and cap and its position with respect to the bed is generally determined by corner pins 34 (Fig. 3) on the bed engaging corner notches 35 on the blade, there being ample clearance to permit the blade to reciprocate longitudinally of the bed. This longitudinal movement is guided by a pair of taper headed pins 36 disposed near the ends of the bed approximately on the longitudinal center line thereof. The pins are suitably mounted on the bed as by shanks 37 having screw threaded engagement with the bed. The cap has receiving apertures 38 for the projecting ends of the pins. The blade has a pair of apertures 39 correspondingly disposed to engage the pins, and these apertures are elongated to permit of longitudinal reciprocation of the blade.
A central longitudinal groove in the bed provides spaced corners B (Fig. 1) near the center line about which the blade is flexed when the cap is assembled on the bed. Outwardly of the corners B, the bed is slightly relieved to clear the blade. The blade covering cap is relieved through its longitudinal central portion to clear the blade and engages the blade along its longitudinal edges as designated generally at A, these lines of engagement being adjacent to the edge portion of the blade. The clearances are shown in exaggerated form in Fig. 1, and in practice will be on the order of a few thousandths of an inch. The arrangements provides an operative blade which is slightly flexed and bears against the bed and the cap along four spaced lines whereby the frictional resistance to movement of the blade is minimized. In normal operation, the slight clearance will fill with water providing an effective seal against the entrance of matter which might clog the mechanism.
The form of blade driving means shown in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, preferably embodies the following arrangement of parts. The high speed rotating shaft 24 carries at its upper end, and within the chamber 26, a gear 40. This gear meshes with the second gear 41 which is loosely mounted on a rod 42. The rod is supported on the head for substantially free movement relative thereto and the supporting means for the rod is characterized in that the rod "floats" substantially freely. Thus the lower end of the rod is seated in a flexible bushing 43 of rubber, or the like, on the bearing plate 25 and the upper or outer end of the rod is supported by a flexible bushing 44 of similar material seated in a recess 45 opening into the head from the outer end thereof. The bushing 44 also seals the head end of the device against the entrance of water and other matter. The wall 46, which defines the base portion of the recess 45, has an aperture 47 through which the rod extends and the aperture is dimensioned to afford substantial clearance between the rod and the wall.
The driven gear 41 has a hub 48 to which a disk 49 is fixed as by a driven fit. As may best be seen in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, an eccentric weight 49a is supported loosely on the upper surface of the disk 49 through a central aperture 50 which is elongated to permit shifting movement of the weight relative to the disk. The weight is substantially semi-circular in outline and is formed on a radius which is slightly less than the radius of the disk so that normally the weight is disposed within the periphery of the disk. Integral with the weight is a radially extending lug 51 to which the long arm 52 of a bell crank lever is secured by a pivot pin 53. The bell crank lever is pivoted to the disk 49 by a stud 54, or the like, located approximately at the angle of the lever. The short arm 55 of the lever carries a radial projection 56 of suitable friction material arranged to be moved into contact with the opposed wall of the head by pivotal movement of the bell crank lever. An arcuate spring 57 is secured through its ends to the disk 49 and weight 49a as indicated respectively at 58 and 59. The spring tension may be adjusted by bending it and is exerted to hold the weight in an inwardly retracted position as shown in Fig. 4. The elongated aperture 50 is, as shown, so disposed with respect to the pivots 53 and 54 of the bell crank lever as to permit the weight to shift outwardly in operation and thereby swing the bell crank lever to move the projection 56 into wiping engagement with the head. Such movement is resisted by the spring 57 and the tension of the spring determines the speed of rotation to which the mechanism is limited.
During rotation, the eccentrically located weight will produce a strong gyratory movement of the rod 42. The disk, weight, and bell crank lever provide a simple and effective assembly in which the speed governor and the prime mover for reciprocating the blade are combined. It may be noted that the arrangement of the brake lever and weight multiplies the effective braking action resulting from shifting of the weight.
Means is provided for translating the gyratory movement of the rod into a straight line reciprocatry movement of the cutting element or blade 29, which preferably parallels the cutting edges of the blade. To this end, as shown in Fig. 1, the axes of the high speed shaft 24 and the rod 42 lie in a plane that is substantially at right angles to the line of reciprocation. A radius rod 60 is swingably mounted on the bearing 61 of the shaft 24 and extends across the axis of the rod 42 where it is apertured slidably to receive the end of the rod 42. The connection is preferably a non-rotatable one obtained as by squaring the end of the rod 42 and its receiving aperture in the radius rod. In operation, the radius rod confines movement of the lower end of the rod 42 to a swinging movement through an arcuate path, but, since the length of the arc is quite small, the travel of the lower rod end is in effect a straight line reciprocation. The radius rod also functions to maintain the driving and driven gears 40 and 41 in proper meshed engagement during the movement of the rod 42 by the action of the unbalanced disk assembly.
In the structure shown in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, the driving connection between the rod 42 and the blade is utilized to translate the gyratory movement of the upper end of the rod into a straight line reciprocation of the blade. Thus, an axial kerf 62 in the outer end of the rod 42 receives one end of a flat leaf spring 63. The outer end of the spring is bifurcated as shown in Fig. 2 and each leg thereof is respectively secured to one half-section of a driving member 64 (Fig. 3). The two members 64 are substantially alike and together form a blade driving member having a tapered outer surface and arranged to fit snugly into a central aperture in the blade. As shown, the member has a contour complemental to the shape of an aperture in certain commercial blades. It will be evident, however, that the member may have other shapes and that the taper may vary as long as a snug driving fit is obtained. The portion of the driving head, projecting beyond the blade, enters an enlarged aperture 65 in the cap. Normally, the bifurcated arms of the spring are biased slightly in opposite directions to spread driving head sections apart, which with the tapered surfaces maintains a close fitting driving connection between the member and the blade.
As will be seen in Figs. 1 to 3, inclusive, the flat spring 63 is arranged with its plane paralleling the line of the blade edges. The spring, being a flat leaf, is not appreciably flexible in its plane, but is relatively quite flexible transversely thereof. Consequently, gyratory movements of the upper end of the rod 42 will be translated into reciprocatory movements of the blade since the leaf spring 63 will only transmit that component of the gyratory movement that is in its plane, other components being absorbed by the flexing of the spring. Any slight tendency of the blade to shift out of a reciprocatory line paralleling the blade edges is prevented by the engagement between the guide pins 36 and the blade.
As has been mentioned, the eccentric disk and driven gear 41 assembly is loosely mounted on the gyratory rod 42. Means is provided for maintaining this assembly in a free running position except when the device is placed in a vertical position as by standing it upright on the end of the handle. Referring to Fig. 2, the bearing plate 25 has a pair of diametrically spaced studs 66 thereon which extend into the chamber 26 and terminate in reduced end portions, A resilient member 67, such as a flat spring, has a central aperture through which the end of the rod 42 extends, and end apertures 68 to fit over the reduced end portions of the pins 66. The member rests on shoulders 69 on the pins. Preferably the member extends in the direction of oscillating movement of the lower end of the rod 42 and the apertures 68 are dimensioned to permit the member to follow the movements of the rod. The central aperture may be squared to fit the rod 42 and assist in preventing rotation of the rod.
The member 67 is located for abutment with the lower end face of the driven gear 41 and the spring is amply resilient to support the weight of the eccentric disk assembly in any position of the razor except substantially a vertical one. In the latter position, the weight of the eccentric disk assembly overcomes the resistance of the member 67 and permits the assembly to move downwardly on the rod 42 so that the lower face of the disk will engage the upper surface of a braking element 70 (Fig. 1) which is supported by a pin 71 on the bearing plate 25. This arrangement serves a dual purpose, i. e., it supports the eccentric disk assembly in loose, free running, relation to the rod 42 when the razor is tilted in operation and it provides a simple braking means for materially retarding the speed of rotation of the eccentric disk in the idle position of the razor. Hence, the user by standing the razor vertically upright may substantially check driven operation which will again start when the razor is tilted.
In the modified form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 6 to 9, inclusive, the structural arrangement of many elements is unchanged from that which has been previously described. In such instances, the same reference numerals have been used. A different form of means for producing a gyratory movement of the shaft 42 is best seen in Figs. 6 and 9. In this form the hub 48 of the driven gear 41 has a disk 72 fixed thereto through an axial flange 73 on the disk. Supported on the disk by eccentrically located pivots 74 is a pair of arcuate weights 75 arranged with their freely swinging ends adjacent, the approaching movement thereof being limited by a pin 75a on the disk. As shown in Fig. 9, the weights have an eccentric relation to the disk which locates the major portion of their weight on one side of the disk whereby in operation to produce the required gyrating movement of the rod 42. The weights upon rotation of the disk swing outwardly to carry brake nibs 76 into engagement with the opposed wall of the chamber and the nibs are preferably located relatively close to the pivoted ends of the weights for increasing the effectiveness of the force exerted by the outwardly swinging weight ends. Thus, the weights act as speed governing means and the rate of rotation is determined by a spring 77 secured through an end to each of the weights and arranged to exert a predetermined tension for restraining the weights against outward movement.
In this modification reciprocation of the blade is effected by moving the entire blade supporting assembly. The outer end of the gyratory rod 42 is rigidly fixed to an enlarged cylindrical member 78 which is, in effect, a continuation of the rod 42. The diameter of the member 78 is substantially smaller than the internal diameter of the recess 45 and the member is located in spaced relation to the bottom wall 46 of the recess. A bushing 79 of rubber or the like fashioned to enhance its flexibility is interposed in sealing relation between adjacent surfaces of the member 78 and walls 46.
The member 78 extends outwardly beyond the end of the head and the projecting end extends into the channel 80 of an elongated blade supporting bed 81 of U-shaped cross section. The upper or outer surface of the bed has longitudinally extending corners C (Fig. 6) about which the razor blade 82 is flexed by a cap 83 having an arcuate blade engaging surface arranged to coact with the corners C to flex the blade to a desired cutting position. Longitudinally spaced taper head pins 81a fixed to the bed engage apertures 81b in the blade to position the blade accurately with respect to the bed and cap. If desired the blade may be provided with U-shaped slots 82a (Fig. 8) straddling the pin apertures 81b to provide a tongue 82b which may be flexed out of the plane of the blade, as shown in Fig. 7, and insure positive engagement between the blade and the pins which will accurately align the blade on the bed.
The cap, blade and bed are operatively secured to the member 78 by such means as a screw-threaded stem 84 fixed, as by a driven fit, to the cap and extending through the blade and bed for screw-threaded engagement with an axial bore in the member 78. Assembly and disassembly are effected by rotating the casing relative to the blade structure. It will be evident that the bed, cap and interposed blade are thus connected rigidly with the member 78 and rod 42 and will be driven by the movement of the rod. The entire assembly is substantially free floating with respect to the razor casing.
Guard means for the cutting edges of the blade is provided which embodies means for confining movement of the blade assembly to a straight line reciprocatory travel. The guard structure in this instance comprises a generally U-shaped member having an elongated base 85 and upturned ends 86. The base is centrally apertured as at 87 to engage a rabbeted groove 88 externally formed on the end of the head, and the assembly maybe detachably maintained by dimensioning the parts to provide a releasable press fit. This arrangement may also serve to hold in place a pair of diametrically located pins 89 (Fig. 7) which are seated in bores in the member 78 and extend radially into enlarged apertures 90 in the head. The pins are preferably located to parallel the line of blade reciprocation and have ample play to permit free movement of the member 78. The pins, however, restrain the member against rotation relative to the casing when securing the blade assembly to the casing unit or when the spring motor is wound while the user holds only the blade assembly.
The base 85 is relatively narrow and the ends 86 extend laterally a substantial distance beyond the longitudinal sides of the base. As shown in Fig. 8, guard members 91, 92 extend between the ends of the arms in position to underlie the cutting edges of the blade. These guards may be smooth surfaced as in the case of the guard 92 or may be a rod having a series of spaced annular projections 93 thereon as in the case of guard 91. In some instances, it may be desirable as shown to provide one guard of each type. The guards may be fixed or rotatable.
Interposed between each guard end 86 and the adjoining end of the bed is an elongated, horizontally extending leaf spring 94 connected with the guard end at one side of the razor and with the bed end at the other side. These springs float the vibrating razor blade assembly with respect to the guard structure and the flat planes of the springs are located substantially at right angles to the plane of the blade. The springs are substantially unyielding along their lengths and will, therefore, translate all movement of the blade assembly into approximately a straight line reciprocatory movement paralleling the cutting edges of the blade. The springs furthermore tend to resist relative rotation between the guard and blade assembly and prevent damage when the user grasps the head end of the razor while winding the spring motor. During reciprocation of the blade the springs absorb the shock at the points of movement transition thus producing a smoothly running device and any force absorbed by the springs will for the most part be returned.
From the foregoing it will be evident that a novel razor structure has been provided in which a reciprocatory movement of the cutting element is produced in a simple and efficient manner. The eccentric mass produces a gyratory movement of the rod 42 which may aptly be considered as the immediate blade driving means and the rate of movement is accurately held by the governor mechanism at the desired speed. Gyratory movements of the rod 42 are in a simple manner effectively translated into straight line reciprocation of the cutting element. The rod 42 may be said to be free floating in that it has no fixed rigid connection with any part of the casing. Consequently, the rod and the parts driven thereby will move freely with substantially no transmission of vibration to the casing.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a power driven razor, the combination of cutting means, a support therefor, and means for imparting a reciprocatory stroke to said cutting means including a member movable in a gyratory path, means for driving said member, vibration dampening means interposed between said member and said support to substantially prevent transmission of the forces set up by gyratory movement of said member to said support, and means connecting said member with said cutting means for translating the gyratory motion of said member into reciprocatory strokes of said cutting means.
2. In a power driven razor, the combination of cutting means, supporting means therefor, driven means connected with said cutting means for imparting a reciprocatory stroke thereto, and resilient means wholly supporting said driven means on said supporting means and substantially preventing transmission of vibrations from said driven means to said supporting means.
3. In a power driven razor, the combination of a blade supported for reciprocatory movement along a rectilinear path, blade driving means having a gyratory movement, means for translating such movement into reciprocatory movement of said blade, and supporting means for said blade driving means including means for substantially preventing movement of the supporting means in response to movement of said blade driving means.
4. In a power driven razor, the combination of a casing, a blade supported by said casing for reciprocatory movement relative to said casing only along a rectilinear path paralleling a cutting edge of said blade, blade driving means having an orbital path of movement, and means for translating the orbital movement of said blade driving means into reciprocatory movement of said blade.
5. A razor having, in combination, a reciprocable cutting element, and means for driving said element including a driven member movable in an orbital path, and means for imparting to said element only the component of such orbital movement which will produce substantial rectilinear reciprocation.
6. A razor having, in combination, a reciprocable cutting element, a driven member having motion through an orbital path, and means for connecting said element to said member including resilient means for translating the orbital movement of said member into substantially straight line reciprocatory movement of said element.
7. A razor having, in combination, a reciprocable cutting element, a driven member having motion through an orbital path, and means connecting said element and member for driving said element by said member, said means being rigid in the plane of reciprocation of said element and flexible transversely of said plane.
8. A razor having, in combination, a reciprocable cutting element, a driven member having motion through an orbital path, means drivingly connecting said element and member, and means flexible in one plane and rigid in another plane disposed to permit said element to reciprocate on a line in the plane in which said means is flexible and to prevent other movement thereof.
9. In a razor, the combination of a reciprocable cutting element, means for reciprocating said element, guard means, and resilient means interposed between said element and guard and flexible only in the direction of movement of said element.
10. In a razor, the combination of a cutting element, a support therefor, and driving means for imparting a cutting movement to said element including a revoluble unbalanced weight, means revoluble with said weight for controlling the speed of revolution thereof, and means for transmitting the gyratory movements of said weight resulting from its unbalanced condition to said element.
11. In a razor, the combination of a cutting element, a support therefor, and driving means for imparting a cutting movement to said element including a yieldably mounted member connected with said element, and a revoluble unbalanced weight arranged to transmit its movement about its center of revolution to said element, said weight being shiftable relative to said member and having speed governing means actuated by such shifting movement.
12. In a power driven razor, the combination of a casing adapted to stand upright on one end and having a cutting element at the other end, means for driving said element with a cutting movement including a rotatable member, and speed reducing means engageable with said member only when the casing is in its upright position.
13. In a razor, the combination of a cutting element, a support therefor and driving means for imparting a cutting movement to said element including a movable rod, a driven member having movement in an orbital path slidably mounted on said rod and adapted to impart such movement thereto, stationary means engageable with said member upon sliding movement thereof in one direction, and resilient means urging said member in the opposite direction with a force ample to prevent such engagement except when said support is substantially upright.
14. In a power actuated razor, the combination of a casing, a cutting element, and means for driving said element relative to said casing through a cutting stroke including a driven head detachably engaging said element, said head being a sectional member having means acting on the sections for urging them oppositely into secure driving engagement with the cutting element.
15. In a power driven razor, the combination of a movable cutting element, means supporting said element, and means for driving said element through a cutting stroke relative to its supporting means including a driving member connected directly with said element and having a gyratory movement and means for limiting the cutting stroke movement of said element to a straight line reciprocatory movement.
16. In a razor, the combination of a blade, reciprocable supporting means for said blade, guard means for the cutting edge of the blade, and leaf springs connected between the ends of the supporting means and the ends of the guard means permitting relative movement therebetween only in the direction of reciprocation of said supporting means.
17. In a razor, the combination with generally rectangularly shaped supporting means for a blade, of guard means for said blade, and a flat spring at each end of the supporting means connected thereto near diagonally opposite corners thereof to extend in opposite directions flatwise across and outwardly from the ends of the supporting means, the outer ends of said springs being connected to said guard means.
18. In a razor, the combination with a rectangularly shaped blade support, of a guard frame for said blade dimensioned to extend about said support in spaced relation thereto, and spring means interposed between the ends of said frame and the ends of said support to maintain the spaced relation, said spring means being flexible only in a direction parallel to the cutting edge of a blade on said support.
19. A razor having, in combination, a cutting element, a support therefor, a driven member having motion through an orbital path substantially paralleling the plane of said element, means for transmitting the orbital movement of said driven member to said element, blade guard means for engagement with the user's face, and resilient means interposed between said guard and said support flexible only in a direction substantially parallel to the cutting edge of said element.
20. A razor having, in combination, a blade support adapted to hold a blade in position for use, a driven member having motion through an orbital path substantially paralleling the plane of a blade on said support, connecting means for transmitting the motion of said member to said support, a blade guard spaced from said support and the cutting edge of a blade thereon, and spring means connecting said support and guard and yieldable only in a direction paralleling the cutting edge of the blade so as to confine the motion of the said support and a blade thereon when the guard is engaged with the user's skin to movements paralleling the cutting edge of the blade.
21. In a razor, the combination of supporting means for a blade, means for driving said supporting means with a continuous movement which includes a component of motion in a direction paralleling the cutting edge of a blade on said supporting means, blade guard means, and means supporting said guard means for movement relative to the blade supporting means in said direction including resilient means for centering the position of said guard means with respect to said blade supporting means.
RUSSELL P. HARSHBERGER.